Trafficking in Persons Report 2012 COTE D IVOIRE
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Fight against human trafficking
Political Figures and Parties. What are the aims of this organization? When was this organization founded? Who is the current leader of the organization? Does this group have political ties to any other political organizations in the Ivory Coast? Sexual Orientation. Specific Country Issues - Armed Conflict. E - Reports of the government ill-treating individuals released from captivity by rebel groups; whether such individuals are perceived as rebel sympathizers; treatment of individuals perceived as rebel sympathizers - - February PDF CIV The objectives were not reached and joint statements were released in and More action followed.
In September , the U. Despite the multistakeholder initiatives and reiterated rounds of funding, child, and forced labor remains a problem.
Alongside government actions, such as the Harkin—Engel protocol, major corporations have also experimented with voluntary certification programs International Labor Rights Forum, Starbucks introduced an overall sustainability Cocoa Practices Program which includes a strong labor standards component.
Despite progress in certification schemes, such as employers providing a living wage to farmers working on cooperatives, there is no indication that this has put an end to child labor on cocoa plantations U. Even certified cooperatives employed large numbers of children, who were temporarily removed from the site by managers during visits by external auditors. Certification programs may take steps when abuses are uncovered and retaliate in response to farmers' noncompliance. In , founders of the FairTrade certification process suspended West African suppliers who were complicit in using child labor Food Empowerment Project, Between September and December , researchers monitored farms and found 56 child workers; 25 of these were under the age of 15 Fair Labor Association, Some of the children were involved in hazardous work.
This occurs in countries both linked to, and those not involved in the production of conflict or blood diamonds. The attempt by governments and the industry to regulate this sector shows the success and pitfalls in voluntary regulation schemes. In the early s, meetings between representatives from diamond producing and import countries, industry representatives, and civil society organizations met to discuss regulation of the diamond sector Dussenne, In November , 37 governments signed the Kimberly Process Certification scheme.
One year later, the scheme came into force Tamo, This certification scheme, the result of a partnership between governments, industry, and civil society organizations is one initiative aimed at regulating the market to stem the flow of rough or conflict diamonds used by rebel movements to finance wars. This multistakeholder initiative included civil society organizations tasked with a monitoring and expertise role, providing administrative and technical guidance Dupuy, Civil society organizations, such as Global Witness and Partnership Africa Canada, involved during the initial negotiations, lent credibility and legitimacy to the negotiation process Dussenne, Besides that, members have a variety of optional actions they may pursue.
Corporations may internalize best practices in the purchase of rough diamonds, States may prosecute violators, and civil society may act as an additional monitor.
The Kimberly Process Certification Scheme, as a multistakeholder initiative, has great potential to influence the diamond sector. The role of civil society organizations was essential as their involvement, after having critiqued the blood diamond trade, lent legitimacy to the structure. The diamond industry provided the technical expertise, and support of governments was necessary to enforce the scheme Dussenne, Its impact was measurable.
However, its effectiveness has been limited in certain countries. Representatives from civil society do not always participate in monitoring visits, and lack of government resources hampers review visits Dussenne, The certification scheme arguably lacks inclusion and equality. It requires transparency only among participants, focusses solely on the mining of conflict diamonds, and does not address important mining issues such as health and safety—areas directly related to forced labor and human trafficking Tamo, Among these initiatives are Truckers Against Trafficking and the Blue Lightning Initiative training of airline personnel.
The Evolution of the UNODC Global Report on Trafficking in Persons
The focus of their work is not uncovering exploitation in the business supply chain, but raising awareness of employees within the service industry to recognize potential trafficking victims. These initiatives have shown some degree of success. Truckers Against Trafficking TAT began its work in with the aim of educating, empowering and mobilizing the trucking industry and its partners to raise awareness of human trafficking, and identify and assist victims. The organization has partnered with law enforcement and hundreds of private and public trucking schools, companies and major truck stops across the United States.
Training courses alert drivers to the signs of trafficking, how to approach potential victims, and how and where to report suspicious activities Aronowitz, The organization has partnered with trucking associations across all 50 U. The website reports that truckers have made over 2, calls to the National Human Trafficking Resource Center to report possible cases of trafficking.
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A similar program aimed at raising awareness among airline personnel has been launched in the United States. She had noticed two distressed children on a flight and their caretaker seemed to be unconcerned about the state the children were in.
Department of Homeland Security, In , the U. Departments of Homeland Security and Transportation, began offering voluntary training to U. As of the same date, the U. The CBP had also received tips from flight deck communications and an online tip form Odom, It is difficult to establish the success of this program. Venezuela continuously ranks as one of the worst countries for human trafficking as they do little to prevent or punish trafficking.
They have strict laws surrounding it, but the prosecution of the crime is rare. Since , Venezuela has convicted only three people under the human trafficking laws. Perhaps the most encouraging data is that the report assigned 36 countries, including the United States, to the Tier 1 category.
Guyana deserves special praise, as its ranking rose from Tier 2 to Tier 1. Photo: Flickr. Defined as the illegal movement of people, usually for forced labor or sexual exploitation, human trafficking is a lucrative business and global issue. Traffickers often approach potential victims with enticing offers, such as jobs, educational opportunities, or even marriage abroad.
Upon accepting such offers, victims are told they must pay back the cost of traveling to their destination. Upon arrival, they often find themselves trapped in forms of modern-day slavery, with little to no chance of escape. It is estimated that there are currently Human trafficking is a much larger problem than many realize: it is the fastest growing form of international crime. It is the second largest source of illegal income worldwide, behind only illegal drug trafficking.
However, human trafficking is appealing to many organized crime groups as it can bring a higher profit than drug trafficking. For decades, human trafficking in Cuba has been at the center of the trade. Adults and children alike have been tricked into prostitution and forced labor.
The most vulnerable group is young people between the ages of 13 and 20, who are often victims of child prostitution or sex tourism. There have been reports of forced labor with Cuban government work missions abroad, which the government denies. Some claim these missions were completely voluntary and well paid, while others say they were coerced or forced by government officials who withheld their passports or restricted their movements.
Historically, Cuba has not complied with minimum standards for preventing human trafficking, but in recent years, the nation has been making significant efforts to combat sex trafficking. The U. Since , the Cuban government has prosecuted and convicted numerous sex traffickers and provided services to their victims.
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The Ministry of Labor and Social Services is leading a committee to combat gender and sexual violence, including sex trafficking. Furthermore, the Federation of Cuban Women, an NGO, is providing outreach to victims and information about the abuses that female trafficking victims experience. These efforts are important, but there is much more work to be done. Currently, the government does not recognize forced labor as a widespread issue and has not reported significant efforts to stop forced labor.
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Actions against trafficking need to be more extensive and new legislation prohibiting all forms of trafficking needs to be drafted, passed, and enforced. Authorities must continue investigating and prosecuting those responsible for trafficking and all victims should have access to support services. These recent improvements have benefitted many, especially sex trafficking victims, but more efforts are needed to prevent other forms of forced labor in Cuba. The report is organized by ranking governments in their effectiveness in preventing human trafficking and addressing the issues associated with modern day slavery.
The stated purpose of publishing these reports is to hold traffickers accountable for their actions and to prevent more people from falling victim.